THIS report deals with the elevations in electrolyte content and osmolarity of the plasma that have been observed in the last two years in patients at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Its purpose is to draw attention to the frequent occurrence of hyperelectrolytemia in pathologic conditions of childhood, to outline some of the factors leading to hyperosmolarity of the body fluids and to present some conclusions with regard to the fluid management of patients exhibiting such derangements.
The validity of the dictum of Claude Bernard, that constancy of the internal milieu constitutes the condition of freedom for the cells of the body, has been amply established in the last forty years. With respect to the electrolytes of the body, the studies of Gamble1 provided the outstanding contribution to this concept. He demonstrated the tendency of the electrolytes of the body fluids to remain constant in various experimental and clinical conditions