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Fundamental Patterns of Maladjustment: The Dynamics of Their Origin.

Am J Dis Child. 1947;73(3):379. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1947.02020380124012.
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This is a statistical analysis based on 500 records of cases of children examined at the Michigan Child Guidance Institute. The material was gathered by social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists. The patients were "problem children" from various parts of the state of Michigan, who were referred by school authorities, courts and welfare agencies.

The authors concluded that there are three fundamental patterns of maladjustment; namely, the syndrome of unsocialized aggressive behavior, the syndrome of socialized delinquency and the syndrome of overinhibited behavior. Each of these patterns is identified and characterized by a group of traits. The first pattern, for example, is characterized by assault tendencies, intiatory fighting, cruelty, defiance of authority, malicious mischief and inadequate feelings of guilt.

The authors attempted to determine the situations at home which gave rise to the various patterns described but it is difficult to understand their conclusions, based, as they are, on a large


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