On Aug. 13, 1942 Maria Terezinha, a Negro infant 1 month and 12 days old, daughter of a youthful mother, was admitted to my ward of the hospital. The father was apparently healthy, but the mother during the pregnancy had had a positive Wassermann reaction. She had received antisyphilitic treatment, consisting of injections of a bismuth compound and a total of 8.55 Gm. of neoarsphenamine, in the antepartum clinic. Gestation was normal, and the birth occurred at term, but it was delayed and difficult. The child was delivered in white asphyxia and was resuscitated by showed rigidity of the right arm, refused breast feeding and had difficulty in swallowing. The next day, July 2, there was pronounced paresis of the right leg with talipes equinus, and the plantar reflex was abolished. Roentgen examination of the arm revealed no abnormality, and a lumbar puncture showed that the spinal fluid was clear.