This study of the neuropsychiatric syndrome of typhoid fever in children is based on an examination of 41 patients of a total of 970. The syndrome consists largely of intense drowsiness, with early meningeal reactions; delirium, and, frequently, real psychosis. The outlook is good, but death can occur, and sometimes there are sequelae. Histologic studies in 1 case showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the glia cells in the entire cerebral cortex. Treatment is symptomatic.