In attempting to discuss negativism I am in part interested in seeing what can be worked out as to this prevalent and bothersome symptom and in part anxious to see how far I can illustrate the points made in a previous paper1 by actually applying them to an ordinary clinical problem. It will serve my purpose best if I first comment on a case. Admittedly, this case is a "museum specimen," but choice of such an example is necessary to throw into relief the questions to be faced.
REPORT OF A CASE
Esther was 4½ years old when she was first brought to me by her mother because of her stubborn disobedience. "See what I have to put up with," Mrs. Heller reiterated, as the child stood stock-still in the center of my office. It is hard to tell when this negativism began. By then it was so advanced