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A STUDY OF THE FEET OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN

ALLAN BLOXSOM, M.D.
Am J Dis Child. 1940;59(1):45-47. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1940.01990120047004.
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In 1932 King1 described a new method of recording children's footprints and pointed out that the correct print to be analyzed is the walking print. Bivings2 in 1933 called attention to the angle of pronation of the foot and the accompanying rolling out of the ankle. He later3 presented a new method of studying footprints and heelprints of children.

The Bivings classification of feet follows:

  1. Perfect feet, with no abduction and no pronation.

  2. Feet with first degree weakness, the footprint line passing out approximately through the fourth toe and the angle of pronation not exceeding 10 degrees.

  3. Feet with second degree weakness (borderline), the footprint line passing out approximately through the third toe and the angle of pronation not exceeding 14 degrees.

  4. Feet with third degree weakness, the footprint line passing out near the great toe and the angle of pronation exceeding 14 degrees.

Bivings4 recently

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