The various methods of collapse therapy employed for adults with pulmonary tuberculosis have also been used for children. Some of the earliest reports of the use of artificial pneumothorax for tuberculous children appeared from 1911 to 1914 in Germany (Pielsticker and Vogt1), in France (Rist2) and in Denmark.3 In 1924 Eliasberg and Cahn4 published their report of its use for 111 children varying in age from 4 months to 14 years. In subsequent years important contributions were made to the understanding of the immediate and ultimate results of pneumothorax therapy in children by Simon,5 Klare,6 Armand-Delille7 and their co-workers.
There was some delay in the application of bilateral pneumothorax to children. Among the earliest reports were those by Wiese8 in 1926 and by Armand-Delille and Lestocquoy9 in 1927. Both Wiese and Armand-Delille have employed collapse therapy for large numbers of children