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I. J. WOLF, M.D.
Am J Dis Child. 1937;54(3):520-528. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1937.01980030064004.
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The relation which malocclusion bears to sigmatism is still a controversial question. No one will deny that malocclusion may cause sigmatism, but its importance has been minimized by some and exaggerated by others. I believe that malocclusion does play an important rôle in sigmatism. It is my purpose not only to present some statistical evidence concerning the relation of malocclusion to sigmatism but to attempt to clarify the rôle which malocclusion plays in sigmatism. Before proceeding with this task it is necessary to state a few elementary definitions. Sigmatism may be defined as the faulty articulation of s or the sounds related to it (sh, z, zh, ch and j), or the interchange of these sounds among themselves or with other sounds. For instance, s may lack its normal sharpness or be too sharp or whistling. On the other hand, s may be replaced by another sound, such as th,


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