Congenital alopecia, as evidenced by a survey of the literature, is one of the rarest anomalies involving the skin and its appendages. Total alopecia, according to Andrews,1 may develop suddenly or may be superimposed gradually on alopecia areata. The universal type generally affects middle-aged persons, although it may occur at any age. No mention of congenital familial alopecia is made in his text. Sutton2 mentioned congenital alopecia as a rare condition usually associated with other defects. Lack of normal development or absence of a majority of or even all the hair follicles was considered the responsible condition.
Chambers3 and later Thompson4 reported universal alopecia due to syphilis. The condition has occurred after scarlet fever5 and as a result of the extreme stress of living at the front during the World War.6 Joseph7 demonstrated that localized loss of hair may be due to an