Am J Dis Child. 1934;47(5):1087-1099. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1934.01960120145012.
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Acute rheumatic fever, aptly characterized as a disease which "licks the joints and bites the heart," has attracted world-wide attention within recent years. The close association between rheumatic fever and heart disease was noted many years ago by early English writers. The present conception rests on the work of Bouillaud1 (1836), who singled out the heart as the chief sufferer. He called attention to the permanent nature of the cardiac injury and described alterations in the functional activities of the heart. With the introduction of graphic methods in the physiologic laboratory and at the bedside, an intensive study of the heart took place. Many investigators interested themselves in following up the rheumatic cases in order to observe the myocardial changes. At the same time there appeared at intervals a number of clinical and pathologic reports which led to an astonishing result. It was shown that the first evidence and


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