Much confusion exists regarding the anemias of infancy that are associated with enlarged spleens. There seem to be no definite criteria for diagnosis, and consequently the treatment is unsatisfactory. Since the tendency to remove the spleen in most of these cases is prevalent, it is urgent that they be classified correctly so that it may be known which are benefited by splenectomy and which are not. Dr. T. B. Cooley and his co-workers1 have greatly helped in clarifying these anemias of childhood.
Von Jaksch first described what he called "Anemia Pseudoleukemica Infantum" in 1889. He described an anemia of infants characterized by deficiency of hemoglobin, decrease in the number of red cells, appearance of nucleated red cells in the circulating blood, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, a large spleen, slight hepatic enlargement and high leukocytosis. He stated that his cases of so-called von Jaksch's anemia showed a tendency to recovery. Since that