Gabelkhover was born at Tübingen, a member of a family of some prominence. Over a period of thirty-seven years he resided at Stuttgart and was physician to four successive dukes of Würtemburg. It was at the order of one of these princes that he undertook, with the aid of his son, to write a history of Würtemburg. He had completed only one part when he died, and the rest was never finished. The part completed was never printed, and was placed in the library in Stuttgart.
Gabelkhover's work on medicine met with a different fate. According to Haller, Duke Louis furnished the material, and this led the writer of Gabelkhover's biographical notice in the "Dictionaire des sciences médicales" to state that if this is so it accounts for the mediocrity of the book. But the text was well received, and it went through a surprising number of editions at Tübingen,