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D. L. ESPE, PH.D.; J. A. DYE, PH.D.
Am J Dis Child. 1932;43(1):62-69. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1932.01950010069008.
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The first systematic investigation of the time required for the digestion of milk was probably made by Penzoldt and his school.1 Epstein, Czerney and Wohlmann, pupils of Penzoldt, discovered that the normal period for the emptying of the infant's stomach after breast feeding was from one and one-half to two hours. Through experiments on artificially fed infants, these investigators found that cow's milk frequently remained in the stomach as long as three hours. They were forced to depend on the regurgitation of the milk for their data. The roentgen rays were not used until Tobler, a pupil of Peiser, accidentally discovered that digestion could be correlated with certain changes noted on the roentgenograms they were taking of hospital patients. In 1908, Tobler and Bogen2 published a comprehensive study on the factors influencing gastric digestion of milk, as determined by roentgenograms. Their work is still the basis of many


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