The correlation between symptomatology and pathology in children, so well known to the modern pediatrician, was pointed out to the medical world more than a century ago, by Charles-Michel Billard.
Dr. Billard was born in 1800, in Pelouaille, France. He studied medicine at the École secondaire of Angers from 1819 to 1823. In 1824 he went to Paris. A year later he won a prize for his essay on the mucous membrane of the gastro-intestinal tract. He spent a great deal of his time writing articles for medical journals as a means of livelihood. As a result he was not able to complete his medical education for many years. Billard took his medical degree in 1828, and the same year he published his book on diseases of the new-born and the nursling, "Traité des maladies des enfans nouveau-nés et à la mamelle." After his graduation he returned to Angers, where