In 1925, Lederer1 first called attention to a form of acute, rapidly progressive anemia, accompanied by fever, general weakness, marked pallor and splenic and hepatic enlargement, with severe leukocytosis and erythroblastemia. Another striking characteristic of the picture was the rapid, permanent recovery to normal, following a transfusion of whole blood. The recovery not only demonstrated itself clinically by the general improvement of the patient, but also in the return of a normal hematologic picture.
In the literature, one finds similar cases reported by Brill,2 Steffens,3 and Benhamou, Jude and Gill.4 Krumbhaar,5 Osler,6 and Elsner7 referred to forms of acute pernicious anemia, which somewhat resemble this type, but which are secondary to other conditions, including syphilis. More recently, Holst,8 and Christiansen9 reported two typical cases, both believing that this entity bore no relationship to pernicious anemia. Christiansen was unable to demonstrate