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PROGRESS IN PEDIATRICS |

BILATERAL CONGENITAL FACIAL PARALYSIS:  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND A CLASSIFICATION

BARNET E. BONAR, M.D.; RUSSELL W. OWENS, M.D.
Am J Dis Child. 1929;38(6):1256-1272. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1929.01930120134014.
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The term congenital facial paralysis is applied to a group of cases in which the paralysis is noticed at or shortly after birth. The definition is qualified in this way to include certain cases of undoubted congenital origin in which symptoms are not recognized at birth. The subject of congenital facial paralysis has had sufficient attention for one to assume a clearly defined picture for it, but, unfortunately on review of the literature one finds little clarity about the condition. This confusion has come about more from lack of understanding of the mechanism of development, together with the absence of a simple working outline, than from any other reason. In attempting to formulate such a classification, several factors must be taken into consideration. From a scientific standpoint, an anatomic classification might be more accurate, for instance, the division into supranuclear or nuclear lesions, lesions at the exit of the nerve

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