In 1906, Meyer1 observed a rise of temperature in infants following the feeding of casein of human milk added to whey of cow's milk. This observation stimulated further study of the factors inducing fever in infants, when a variety of substances was given either enterally or parenterally. Finkelstein2 concluded that the fever which accompanied certain cases of severe diarrhea (alimentary intoxication) was not the result of infection but was due to the sugar present in the feeding, since frequently after the withdrawal of lactose from the food, the temperature became normal. Further observations, particularly those of Moro,3 pointed to the fact that salts and protein, especially the latter, were of even greater importance than sugar in the production of fever. Later, the pyrogenic effect of an inadequate water intake was appreciated. Marriott4 emphasized the great importance of the water deficit in the pathogenesis of "alimentary intoxication"