History.—A girl, white, aged 3 years and 6 months, had always been in excellent health. There had been no known exposure to scarlet fever. On Feb. 22, 1925, she had an acute rhinopharyngitis which was followed by otitis media; paracentesis of the drum of the left ear was performed, and there was a purulent discharge from the ear for a few days. The ear had healed completely by March 5.On the evening of March 14, the child complained of feeling sick. On March 16, a definite diagnosis of scarlet fever was made. During the acute stage of the disease the patient was quite ill; she had a high fever (from 103 to 105 F.), extensive eruption and a moderately severe sore throat. The angina was sufficient to cause desquamation of the mucous membranes, with resultant white patches over the ulcerated areas on the tonsils and pharynx.