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Am J Dis Child. 1926;32(4):507-515. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1926.04130100027004.
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE  In a series of cases of urinary infection in children, which were collected and reported,1 a baby, aged 6 weeks, was observed who had persistent pyuria with continuous fever, and presented a tumor in the median line which could be palpated through the abdominal wall. On necropsy this tumor proved to be a horseshoe kidney. The large dilated pelvis contained a purulent secretion, and numerous miliary abscesses were found distributed through the kidney parenchyma. This was my first acquaintance with pyuria in malformations of the urinary tract.Since that time, a number of children with protracted pyuria have presented themselves, and malformation of the bladder, ureters or kidney could be demonstrated in some of them, frequently by cystoscopic examination, occasionally at necropsy.This etiologic factor as a cause of chronic pyuria has received scant attention in the pediatric literature. Gerstenberger and Wahl,2 in discussing the


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