During the past few years, unusual interest has been aroused in the study of thyroid conditions. Perhaps the most important stimulus has been the more general application of basal metabolism determinations. The improved operative technic and the more extensive use of roentgen-ray therapy have also played an important rôle.
The occurrence of three cases of exophthalmic goiter in children in private practice suggested a study of this condition as manifested in childhood. Two of these cases were observed also on the pediatric service at Mount Sinai Hospital.
Exophthalmic goiter was known many centuries ago. The ancient Romans realized that slaves afflicted with this condition were unfit for strenuous work. It was not recognized, however, that exophthalmos was a symptom of a disease until Flajani's work in 1780. Perry, in 1786, noted the same fact. The description of the disease as we know it was given by Graves in 1835 and