Accepted for Publication: July 11, 2011.
Published Online: October 3, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.185
Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Carmichael, Yang, Feldkamp, Siega-Riz, Botto, and Shaw. Acquisition of data: Carmichael, Yang, and Shaw. Analysis and interpretation of data: Carmichael, Yang, Feldkamp, Munger, Siega-Riz, Botto, and Shaw. Drafting of the manuscript: Carmichael, Yang, Feldkamp, and Shaw. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Carmichael, Yang, Feldkamp, Munger, Siega-Riz, Botto, and Shaw. Statistical analysis: Carmichael, Yang, Munger, Botto, and Shaw. Obtained funding: Carmichael and Shaw. Administrative, technical, and material support: Carmichael, Botto, and Shaw. Study supervision: Carmichael.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was partially supported by grants NIH R01 NS050249 and R03DE020112 from the National Institutes of Health and grant CDC 6U01-DD-000489 and 1U01-DD-0006982 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the California Department of Public Health.
Online-Only Material : This article is featured in the Archives Journal Club. Go here to download teaching PowerPoint slides.
Additional Contributions: We thank the California Department of Public Health Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division for providing data.