Accepted for Publication: May 25, 2011.
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Kim, Saville, and Venkataraman. Acquisition of data: Kim, Phrampus, Sikes, and Pendleton. Analysis and interpretation of data: Kim, Sikes, Corcoran, Gracely, and Venkataraman. Drafting of the manuscript: Kim, Sikes, and Venkataraman. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kim, Phrampus, Pendleton, Saville, Corcoran, Gracely, and Venkataraman. Statistical analysis: Kim and Gracely. Obtained funding: Kim. Administrative, technical, and material support: Kim, Sikes, Saville, and Corcoran. Study supervision: Kim, Sikes, and Venkataraman.
Financial Disclosure: During this study, Dr Corcoran was a paid consultant for Praxair Corporation from May 2003 to October 2004. In addition, he agreed to serve on an advisory board for them in July 2007, although the board never met and he did not receive any compensation. None of the other coinvestigators were paid employees, shareholders, or consultants for Praxair Corporation.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by an unrestricted research grant from Praxair Corporation.
Role of the Sponsor: Praxair Corporation had no role in the design, conduct, interpretation, analysis of the study, or review or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: The following people provided help and support in completing this study: Tracy Kim, DMD, MBA, RRT, Steve Polston, RRT, Bill Bryce, Paul Garvey, Brad Hagstrom, Yang Zhao, MD, MBA, Bharat Kohli, MD, MBA, Michael Galvin, Richard Scarfone, MD, Kosair Children's Hospital respiratory therapy staff, and Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh PICU and ED respiratory therapy staff. University of Louisville medical students: Team Heliox. Kosair Children's Hospital ED staff: Ron Paul, MD, Sandy Herr, MD, Mary Clyde Pierce, MD, Don Lewis, MD, Valerie Whatley, MD, Leslie Greenwell, MD, Carla Alcid, MD, Molly Hasty, MD Mary Lacher, MD, Amanda Myers, MD, Jeanie Kallis, MD, Pradeep Padmanabhan, MD, Msc, and Michelle Stevenson, MD, MS.