Three potential confounders were included. (1) Sociodemographics included age, sex, study region, and socioeconomic status. The socioeconomic status of the students was approximated with a combination of student and teacher ratings; students answered 3 items of the Program for International Student Assessment cultural and social capital assessment,22 which asked for the number of books in the household (5-point scale from 0, none to 4, more than 100) and parenting characteristics (“My parents always know where I am” and “My parents know other parents from my school”). Teachers filled out an 11-item school evaluation sheet related to the socioeconomic status of their students (eg, “Most students of the school live in families with financial problems,” “Most students of the school come from underprivileged families,” and “Our school has a good reputation”; the scale ranged from 0, not true at all to 3, totally true; Cronbach α = .85); student and teacher ratings were positively correlated (r = 0.57; α = 0.72). (2) Personal characteristics included self-reported school performance (“How would you describe your grades last year?”; scale points: excellent, good, average, and below average); average television screen time (“How many hours do you usually watch TV in your leisure time?”; scale points: none, about half an hour, about an hour, about 2 hours, about 3 hours, about 4 hours, and more than 4 hours a day); rebelliousness and sensation-seeking, assessed with 4 items combined into a single index, with higher scores indicating greater propensity for rebelliousness and sensation seeking23 (“I get in trouble in school,” “I do things my parents wouldn't want me to do,” “I like scary things,” and “I like to do dangerous things”; scale points: 0, not at all like me; 1, a little like me; 2, pretty much like me; and 3, exactly like me; Cronbach α = .76). (3) Social environment included parent (mother and father) drinking (0, never; 1, rarely; 2, often, but not daily; and 3, daily) and peer drinking (0, none; 1, some; 2, most; and 3, all). As mentioned above, we also controlled for the adolescents' ability to recall advertising in general with the nonalcohol advertising scale.