Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Bisgaier, Levinson, Cutts, and Rhodes. Acquisition of data: Bisgaier. Analysis and interpretation of data: Bisgaier, Levinson, Cutts, and Rhodes. Drafting of the manuscript: Bisgaier. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bisgaier, Levinson, Cutts, and Rhodes. Statistical analysis: Bisgaier and Rhodes. Obtained funding: Rhodes. Administrative, technical, and material support: Levinson, Cutts, and Rhodes. Study supervision: Rhodes.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: The state of Illinois provided funding and support (including the provision of detailed physician licensure data, Medicaid and state employee health insurance claims data, and dummy Medicaid identification numbers) because of a court-ordered consent decree stemming from class action litigation on behalf of Cook County children enrolled in Medicaid.
Disclaimer: The authors are independent investigators who had complete control over and bear the sole responsibility for study design, study implementation, data collection, accuracy, analysis, and interpretations of results.
Additional Contributions: The impetus for this study was generated by attorneys from Health & Disability Advocates, the Sargent Shriver National Center on Poverty Law, and Goldberg Kohn and, most notably, Fredrick Cohen, JD. We also appreciate the collaboration, review, and methodological advice provided by the staff of the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, Miriam Kalichman, MD, Faye Manaster, Martha Van Haitsma, PhD, David Chearo, MA, and many other members of our expert review panel.