To investigate participation patterns in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) among low-income children from kindergarten to fifth grade and to examine the ways in which participation influences sex differences in the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) through the eighth grade.
Longitudinal, secondary data analysis.
Sample of low-income US children who entered kindergarten in 1998.
Girls (n = 574) and boys (n = 566) from low-income families who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort.
Participation in the NSLP.
Temporary and persistent patterns of NSLP participation, and age-specific and sex-specific BMI raw scores calculated at 5 data points.
Among the low-income children who attended schools that participated in the NSLP, both the children who persistently participated in the program and those who temporarily participated in the program displayed similar socioeconomically disadvantaged factors. Nonlinear mixed models indicated a larger rate of change in BMI (ie, an increase) among low-income, participating girls than among low-income, nonparticipating girls; however, mean BMIs did not significantly differ between low-income girls who participated and those who did not participate. No significant differences were observed among low-income boys.
Results suggest that participation in the NSLP is associated with rapid weight gain for low-income girls but not for low-income boys.
This cohort analysis reports that total direct medical expenses for privately insured adolescents who incur the highest costs are associated with medical complexity, mental health conditions, and obesity.
This meta-analysis estimates correlations between parent-adolescent communication about sex and safe sex behaviors among youths.
To (1) identify the temporal order between oral and vaginal sex onset; (2) test whether oral sex or vaginal sex is a risk or protective factor for the other; and (3) determine whether the relationship between oral and vaginal sex varies across time.
Prospective, longitudinal study with 6-month assessments conducted between 2002 and 2005.
Self-administered surveys completed during class time.
At baseline, 627 ninth grade high school students from 2 northern California schools were included in the study.
Oral and vaginal sex onset.
Among sexually active adolescents, most initiated vaginal sex after or within the same 6-month period of oral sex initiation. Adolescents who initiated oral sex at the end of ninth grade had a 50% chance of initiating vaginal sex by the end of 11th grade. In comparison, adolescents who delayed until the end of 11th grade had a 16% chance of initiating vaginal sex by the end of 11th grade.
The first 2 years of high school may be a critical age period for adolescents' vulnerability to vaginal sex initiation via oral sex behaviors. Comprehensive evidenced-based interventions and provision of preventive services aimed toward reducing sexual risk should be expanded to include the role oral sex plays in adolescent sex behavior.
This study uses data from the National Trauma Data Bank to compare mortality of injured adolescents treated at adult trauma centers, pediatric trauma centers, or mixed trauma centers that treat both pediatric and adult trauma patients.
This cross-sectional study describes risk factors associated with acute recurrent pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis in children.
This cohort study investigates associations between nonmedical use of opioids, sedatives, or stimulants, and suicidal ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents.