This population epidemiology study describes the incidence and clinical characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children in Australia and New Zealand between 2007 and 2012.
This nationwide cohort study evaluates the risk of asthma in preschool-aged and school-aged children based on their exposure to dogs and/or farm animals.
This cross-sectional, population-based study of children hospitalized at one institution for lower respiratory tract infections between 2010 and 2013 determines whether the rates varied geographically across a single county and whether such variability was associated with socioeconomic conditions.
This observational, cross-sectional study reports that health care practitioners in rural India have a large know-do gap for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diarrhea and pneumonia. See also the Editorial by Tielsch.
This Viewpoint supports establishing superior benchmarks of care in clinical practice. Establishing achievable excellence is an approach that encourages improvement while not demanding unrealistic or potentially adverse outcomes.
In a retrospective cohort study, Leyenaar et al describe rates and patterns of direct admission in a large sample of US hospitals and compare resource utilization and outcomes between children with pneumonia admitted directly to a hospital and those admitted from an emergency department.
Williams et al validate administrative billing data for hospitalizations owing to childhood community-acquired pneumonia.
To determine the impact of influenza coinfection on outcomes for children with complicated pneumonia.
Retrospective cohort study.
Forty children's hospitals that contribute data to the Pediatric Health Information System.
Children discharged from participating hospitals between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2009, with complicated pneumonia requiring a pleural drainage procedure.
Intensive care unit admission, receipt of mechanical ventilation, receipt of vasoactive infusions, receipt of blood product transfusions, in-hospital death, readmission within 14 days of hospital discharge, hospital length of stay, and cost of hospitalization.
Overall, 3382 of 9680 children with complicated pneumonia underwent pleural fluid drainage; 105 patients (3.1%) undergoing pleural drainage had influenza coinfection. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 1201 cases (35.5%); the most commonly identified bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in children with influenza coinfection (22.9% of cases) and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children without coinfection (20.0% of cases). In multivariable analysis, influenza coinfection was associated with higher odds of intensive care unit admission and receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasoactive infusions, and blood product transfusions as well as higher costs and a longer hospital stay. Children with influenza coinfection were less likely to require readmission, although there was a trend toward higher odds of mortality for patients with coinfection. In a subanalysis stratified by bacteria, outcomes remained worse for coinfected children in the subgroups of children with S aureus and with no specified bacteria.
Influenza coinfection occurred in 3.1% of children with complicated pneumonia. Clinical outcomes for children with complicated pneumonia and influenza coinfection were more severe than for children without documented influenza coinfection.