This population-based study uses data from the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group registry to assess the association of inhaled nitric oxide with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
This population epidemiology study describes the incidence and clinical characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children in Australia and New Zealand between 2007 and 2012.
This population-based cohort study examines the morbidity and mortality of Norwegian adults born with an oral cleft.
This study uses data from the National Trauma Data Bank to compare mortality of injured adolescents treated at adult trauma centers, pediatric trauma centers, or mixed trauma centers that treat both pediatric and adult trauma patients.
This randomized clinical trial aims to determine whether providing donor milk instead of formula as supplemental feeding whenever own mother’s milk is insufficiently available during the first 10 days of life reduces the incidence of serious infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and mortality.
This cohort study examines if use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improvement in major outcomes in extremely preterm multiples.
This population-based cohort study investigates the mortality patterns among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) overall and assesses associations of comorbid mental, behavioral, and neurologic disorders with mortality among persons with ASD.
This post hoc study assesses whether there is an association between oxygen target and growth status.
Using Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study data, the GBD Pediatrics Collaboration investigators determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents in 188 countries from 1990 to 2013.
This observational study determined that more restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying; these findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening the overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.
This longitudinal study reports that suicide rates for adolescents and young adults are higher in rural than urban communities, and rural-urban disparities appear to be increasing over time.
This retrospective observational study reports the lowest rates of mortality or severe neurological injury, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or nosocomial infection in neonates were associated with admission temperatures between 36.5°C and 37.2°C.
This observational study finds that the higher odds of ICU mortality in Latino children disappeared after culturally and linguistically sensitive interventions at multiple levels.
This meta-analysis systematically reviews evidence evaluating the effect of restricted vs liberal oxygen exposure on morbidity and mortality in extremely preterm infants and concludes that, although infants cared for with a liberal oxygen target had significantly lower mortality before hospital discharge than infants cared for with a restricted oxygen target, the quality of evidence for this estimate of effect is low.
This prospective cohort study finds that one-third of assault-injured youth experience another violent injury requiring emergency department (ED) care within 2 years.
This retrospective cohort study documents an immediate opportunity for local quality improvement initiatives and potential impetus for the regionalization of important neonatal intensive care unit resources.
Olds et al determine the effect of prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on maternal and child mortality during a 2-decade period.
Tamma et al determined whether definitive combination antibiotic therapy affects mortality and nephrotoxicity in pediatric patients with gram-negative bacteremia.
Lehman and Fullerton evaluate the demographics and secular trends in mortality from ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in US children (<20 years) and determine if there has been a decrease in the disparity between white and black children since the publication of the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia in 1998. See related editorial by Jordan and DeBaun.