This cohort study evaluates the trend of antibiotic use in very low-birth-weight infants across Canada and the association between antibiotic use rates and mortality and morbidity among neonates without culture-proven sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis.
This study reports on the secular trends of breastfeeding initiation and duration by birth weight using nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
This observational cohort study in a level III neonatal intensive care unit assesses the effects of early enhanced parenteral nutrition and early hyperglycemia on mortality among extremely low-birth-weight infants.
This cohort study of extremely low-birth-weight infants reports that longer mechanical ventilation accounts for the increased risk of chronic respiratory morbidity associated with mechanical ventilation reinitiation.
This epidemiologic time-trend analysis reports that neonatal intensive care unit admission rates increased for all birth weight categories during 2007-2012.
This cohort study assesses the association of a birth hospital’s annual volume of very low-birth-weight infant deliveries and neonatal intensive care unit level with the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that may be predictive of future neurocognitive development.
This cohort study found an increase in adverse events after immunization of extremely low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
This cross-sectional study examines newborn size by gestational age to investigate similarities and differences in risk factors for stunting and wasting.
This Vermont Oxford Network study describes a new web-based tool for neonatal intensive care units to calculate composite morbidity and resource use.
This retrospective cohort study reports that increased regionalization of neonatal intensive care unit care may reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia among very low-birth-weight infants.
This retrospective cohort study documents an immediate opportunity for local quality improvement initiatives and potential impetus for the regionalization of important neonatal intensive care unit resources.
Tolia and colleagues estimate the association between vitamin A supplementation and death or chronic lung disease in the context of the recent vitamin A shortage. See also the Editorial by Laughon.
This prospective cohort study reports that transfusion of cytomegalovirus-seronegative and leukoreduced blood products effectively prevents transmission of cytomegalovirus to very low-birth-weight infants.
Morriss et al assess the association between surgery during the initial hospitalization and death or neurodevelopmental impairment of very low-birth-weight infants. See the editorial by Williams et al.
Roman et al test if participation in the Michigan statewide enhanced prenatal care program, the Maternal Infant Health Program (MIHP), accounting for program timing and dosage, reduced risk for low birth weight and gestational age, particularly among black women.
van Vliet et al summarize studies evaluating the effect of perinatal infections on neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm birth and very low-birth-weight infants.
To examine whether (1) neighborhood disadvantage is associated with social function in 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and (2) the association between social function and child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is moderated by neighborhood disadvantage.
Cross-sectional study using the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants born at very low birth weight in 2003 and 2004 in Wisconsin.
This study includes the subgroup of 626 non-Hispanic black or white infants who were followed up at ages 24 to 43 months with parent-reported health and developmental information.
An index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived by principal component analysis of 5 census tract variables (percentage of families in poverty, percentage of households with income higher than the state median, percentage of women with bachelor's degree or more, percentage of single mothers, and percentage of mothers of young children unemployed). Children were then classified (based on index tertiles) as living in either disadvantaged, middle advantage, or advantaged neighborhoods. Children's HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory.
Social function was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory.
Adjusting for child medical and family socioeconomic attributes, social function was lower (mean difference, −4.60; 95% confidence interval, −8.4 to −0.8) for children living in disadvantaged vs advantaged neighborhoods. We also found that the ill effects of lower HRQoL are particularly bad for children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood.
Children born at very low birth weight have disparities in social function at ages 2 and 3 years that are associated with both HRQoL and neighborhood characteristics.