This cohort study evaluates the trend of antibiotic use in very low-birth-weight infants across Canada and the association between antibiotic use rates and mortality and morbidity among neonates without culture-proven sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis.
This cost-effectiveness analysis estimates the cost-effectiveness of universal and targeted newborn congenital cytomegalovirus screening programs vs no screening among infants in US postpartum care and early hearing programs.
This modeling study estimates the number of pregnant women infected with Zika virus in Puerto Rico and the number of associated congenital microcephaly cases.
This randomized clinical trial aims to determine whether providing donor milk instead of formula as supplemental feeding whenever own mother’s milk is insufficiently available during the first 10 days of life reduces the incidence of serious infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and mortality.
This simulation study using a mathematical model of pertussis transmission assesses whether a priming dose of whole-cell pertussis vaccine is cost-effective at reducing pertussis infection in infants.
This study of febrile infants reports that a procalcitonin assay has better diagnostic accuracy than C-reactive protein measurement for detecting invasive bacterial infection.
This study of a large, nationally representative cohort of infants discharged between 1997 and 2012 from neonatal intensive care units compares demographics and mortality of infants having invasive methicillin-resistant S aureus and methicillin-susceptible S aureus.
This literature review examines adenotonsillectomy in children, including the indications, contraindications, perioperative issues, and current controversies.
This review article summarizes the role of innate immunity in influenza A virus infection in the young child and highlights possible differences between children and adults that may make children more susceptible to severe influenza A infection.
This mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional anonymous survey at a large children’s hospital identifies systems-level and sociocultural reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians work while sick.
This control analysis reports that a best practice central catheter-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundle sustained reduction in preventable harm in the form of central catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children with intestinal failure.
This mathematical modeling study finds that modified palivizumab regimens improve protection for children at risk for severe outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.
This observational study finds that the higher odds of ICU mortality in Latino children disappeared after culturally and linguistically sensitive interventions at multiple levels.
Fritz and coauthors conclude that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains concordant with infecting and colonizing strains are present on commonly handled household surfaces, a factor that likely perpetuates MRSA transmission and recurrent disease. See editorial by Milstone.
Kaufman and colleagues determine if nonsterile glove use after hand hygiene before all patient and venous catheter contact, compared with hand hygiene alone, prevents late-onset infections in preterm infants. See also the editorial by Coffin.
In a matched case-control study with conditional logistic regression analysis, Glanz and coauthors examine the association between undervaccination and pertussis in children 3 to 36 months of age.
Beyerlein et al examine whether early, short-term, or cumulative exposures to episodes of infection and fever during the first 3 years of life were associated with the initiation of persistent islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
In a cluster randomized controlled trial, Fottrell and coauthors assess the effect of a participatory women’s group intervention with higher population coverage on neonatal mortality in Bangladesh.