This observational cohort study compares rates of neonatal morbidities and 18- to 22-month neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants exposed to partial or complete courses of antenatal steroids vs those exposed to no antenatal steroids.
This national cohort study characterizes neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 6.5 years of children who had extreme preterm births (<27 weeks) in Sweden.
This randomized clinical noninferiority trial compares heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) vs standard nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel nasal CPAP in treating respiratory distress syndrome of prematurity.
This population-based longitudinal cohort study compares the social functioning of low-birth-weight prematurely born adults aged 29 to 36 years with that of normal-birth-weight term controls.
This randomized clinical trial aims to determine whether providing donor milk instead of formula as supplemental feeding whenever own mother’s milk is insufficiently available during the first 10 days of life reduces the incidence of serious infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and mortality.
This cohort study examines if use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improvement in major outcomes in extremely preterm multiples.
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect of late surfactant administration in infants with prolonged respiratory distress.
This systematic review summarizes prognostic factors for poor cognitive development in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight.
This cohort study of extremely low-birth-weight infants reports that longer mechanical ventilation accounts for the increased risk of chronic respiratory morbidity associated with mechanical ventilation reinitiation.
This randomized trial finds no increase in the survival of extremely preterm infants receiving a less-invasive surfactant application protocol vs continuous positive airway pressure.
This cohort study found an increase in adverse events after immunization of extremely low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
This systematic review found that although the intubate-surfactant-extubate approach is not superior to noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in preventing chronic lung disease, it does not increase chronic lung disease, death, or air leakage.
This Viewpoint explores human behavioral epigenetics in preterm infants.
This Viewpoint discusses the importance of effective patient-physician communication when addressing high-stakes medical decisions.
This retrospective observational study reports the lowest rates of mortality or severe neurological injury, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or nosocomial infection in neonates were associated with admission temperatures between 36.5°C and 37.2°C.
This meta-analysis systematically reviews evidence evaluating the effect of restricted vs liberal oxygen exposure on morbidity and mortality in extremely preterm infants and concludes that, although infants cared for with a liberal oxygen target had significantly lower mortality before hospital discharge than infants cared for with a restricted oxygen target, the quality of evidence for this estimate of effect is low.