This observational cohort study compares rates of neonatal morbidities and 18- to 22-month neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants exposed to partial or complete courses of antenatal steroids vs those exposed to no antenatal steroids.
This randomized clinical trial aims to determine whether providing donor milk instead of formula as supplemental feeding whenever own mother’s milk is insufficiently available during the first 10 days of life reduces the incidence of serious infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and mortality.
This cohort study assesses the association of a birth hospital’s annual volume of very low-birth-weight infant deliveries and neonatal intensive care unit level with the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that may be predictive of future neurocognitive development.
This retrospective observational study reports the lowest rates of mortality or severe neurological injury, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or nosocomial infection in neonates were associated with admission temperatures between 36.5°C and 37.2°C.
This meta-analysis systematically reviews evidence evaluating the effect of restricted vs liberal oxygen exposure on morbidity and mortality in extremely preterm infants and concludes that, although infants cared for with a liberal oxygen target had significantly lower mortality before hospital discharge than infants cared for with a restricted oxygen target, the quality of evidence for this estimate of effect is low.
This national, prospective, population-based cohort study found substantial survival improvement in survival and a reduction in severe morbidity for newborns born at 25 through 31 weeks’ gestation.
This retrospective cohort study documents an immediate opportunity for local quality improvement initiatives and potential impetus for the regionalization of important neonatal intensive care unit resources.
This retrospective cohort study reports that in very preterm neonates, early (prophylactic) caffeine use was associated with a reduction in the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus. No adverse impact on any other outcomes was observed.
Kaufman and colleagues determine if nonsterile glove use after hand hygiene before all patient and venous catheter contact, compared with hand hygiene alone, prevents late-onset infections in preterm infants. See also the editorial by Coffin.
van Vliet et al summarize studies evaluating the effect of perinatal infections on neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm birth and very low-birth-weight infants.