This special communication reports on the recommendations developed by a group of extramural investigators convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for the direction(s) for future research in prenatal and perinatal determinants of lung health and disease in early life and identifies opportunities for scientific advancement.
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect of late surfactant administration in infants with prolonged respiratory distress.
This post hoc study assesses whether there is an association between oxygen target and growth status.
This cohort study reports that postnatal cytomegalovirus infection was associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low-birth-weight infants.
This cohort study of extremely low-birth-weight infants reports that longer mechanical ventilation accounts for the increased risk of chronic respiratory morbidity associated with mechanical ventilation reinitiation.
This randomized trial finds no increase in the survival of extremely preterm infants receiving a less-invasive surfactant application protocol vs continuous positive airway pressure.
This systematic review found that although the intubate-surfactant-extubate approach is not superior to noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in preventing chronic lung disease, it does not increase chronic lung disease, death, or air leakage.
This retrospective observational study reports the lowest rates of mortality or severe neurological injury, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or nosocomial infection in neonates were associated with admission temperatures between 36.5°C and 37.2°C.
This meta-analysis systematically reviews evidence evaluating the effect of restricted vs liberal oxygen exposure on morbidity and mortality in extremely preterm infants and concludes that, although infants cared for with a liberal oxygen target had significantly lower mortality before hospital discharge than infants cared for with a restricted oxygen target, the quality of evidence for this estimate of effect is low.
This retrospective cohort study reports that increased regionalization of neonatal intensive care unit care may reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia among very low-birth-weight infants.
This retrospective cohort study reports that in very preterm neonates, early (prophylactic) caffeine use was associated with a reduction in the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus. No adverse impact on any other outcomes was observed.