This observational study measured hemoglobin saturation in cerebral tissue before, during, and after blood transfusion in a cohort of Ugandan children with severe anemia.
This cohort study evaluates the effects of early childhood adversity on gray matter volume in young men.
This longitudinal cohort study investigates whether atypical structural development in areas of the brain tied to school readiness skills mediates the relationship between childhood poverty and impaired academic performance.
This cross-sectional study evaluates whether obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome have retinal vessel alterations and cerebral white matter microstructural damage.
Pollack et al investigate the relationships between the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (POPC/PCPC) scales for large-sample studies.
To assess the long-term outcome of brain structure in preterm infants, at an average age of 12 years, who received a red blood cell transfusion for anemia of prematurity.
As neonates, this cohort of infants participated in a clinical trial in which they received red blood cell transfusions based on a high pretransfusion hematocrit threshold (liberal group) or a low hematocrit threshold (restricted group). These 2 preterm groups were compared with a group of full-term healthy control children.
Tertiary care hospital.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans for 44 of the original 100 subjects were obtained.
Liberal vs restricted transfusion.
Intracranial volume, total brain tissue, total cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter volume, subcortical nuclei volume, and cerebellum volume.
Intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. Intracranial volume in the restricted group was not different from controls. Whole-cortex volume was not different in either preterm group compared with controls. Cerebral white matter was substantially reduced in both preterm groups, more so for the liberal group. The subcortical nuclei were substantially decreased in volume, equally so for both preterm groups compared with controls. When sex effects were evaluated, the girls in the liberal group had the most significant abnormalities.
Red blood cell transfusions affected the long-term outcome of premature infants as indicated by reduced brain volumes at 12 years of age for neonates who received transfusions using liberal guidelines.