This Viewpoint discusses how the FDA can build upon the deeming rule to further protect youth by regulating e-cigarette advertising and flavors.
Surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 and involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth.
This review discusses the history of electronic cigarettes, user demographics, known health effects, and current legislative efforts to protect minors from exposure.
Bernhardt et al determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children’s meals by McDonald’s and Burger King.
Terry-McElrath et al examine changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. See the editorial by Harris and Fox.
Fleming-Milici and coauthors quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth.
To examine the trends in food advertising seen by American children and adolescents.
Trend analysis of children's and adolescents' exposure to food advertising in 2003, 2005, and 2007, including separate analyses by race.
Children aged 2 to 5 years and 6 to 11 years and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.
Exposure to total food advertising and advertising by food category.
Between 2003 and 2007 daily average exposure to food ads fell by 13.7% and 3.7% among young children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years, respectively, but increased by 3.7% among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Exposure to sweets ads fell 41%, 29.3%, and 12.1%, respectively, for 2- to 5-, 6- to 11-, and 12- to 17-year-olds and beverage ads were down by about 27% to 30% across these age groups, with substantial decreases in exposure to ads for the most heavily advertised sugar-sweetened beverages—fruit drinks and regular soft drinks. Exposure to fast food ads increased by 4.7%, 12.2%, and 20.4% among children aged 2 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years, respectively, between 2003 and 2007. The racial gap in exposure to food advertising grew between 2003 and 2007, particularly for fast food ads.
A number of positive changes have occurred in children's exposure to food advertising. Continued monitoring of food advertising exposure along with nutritional analyses is needed to further assess self-regulatory pledges.